Jakarta, CNBC Indonesia – Almost the entire history of nations from various parts of the world cannot be separated from the practice of colonialism. Colonialism has a goal to control a certain territory. Specifically, countries that carry out colonialism aim to dominate power from various sectors, including politics, the economy, population, to natural resources.
Countries that carry out colonialism generally do not have the earth’s wealth in their colonies. Therefore, they seek to take over these resources. The occurrence of colonialism also received strong military support.
Indeed, nearly every country in the world has been a colony or colonial power at some point in its history. In fact, some countries have been both.
However, some observers argue that the term colonialism actually has a different meaning, depending on which country it is interpreted from and which source. Because of this discrepancy, lists of countries that have never been colonized vary widely from one source to another.
As quoted from the World Population Review, from all countries in the world, only one consistently appears in every list of countries that have never been colonized from every list of sources, namely Japan.
A number of countries appear on the list that were never colonized. However, the fact is that they all had events in their history that arguably made them colonies by one definition or another.
Never colonized, but occupied by the US from 2001-2021.
Surrendered to the British in 1865, became a British protectorate in 1866, and became a British-controlled state as the “princely state” in 1910.
China was conquered by the Mongols in the 1200s, creating the Yuan Dynasty which ruled until AD 1368. Then in 1841-1997, the opium wars strengthened British influence and gave them control over the Hong Kong region.
It avoided becoming an Italian colony due to a mistranslation of the treaty, but was nevertheless annexed by Italy in 1939-1944.
Conquered by the Greeks in the fourth century BC, parts of the territory were captured and passed to Russia during the Russo-Persian Wars, while the rights to oil were held by the British for many years.
It was never colonized by force, but the history of this country began with the establishment of US colonization in 1822 by the American Colonization Society which aimed to return freed Liberian slaves. They were finally recognized as an independent nation in 1862.
Mongolia was ruled by the Qing Dynasty in the 1600s, then ruled by China until 1921, then became a satellite state of the Soviet Union until 1924.
Nepal had survived direct British colonization by surrendering key territories and becoming a British protectorate in 1815. The country was practically a British puppet state for several periods.
9. Saudi Arabia
Parts of Saudi Arabia were ruled by the Ottoman empire from the early 1500s to the early 1900s.
Thailand was never colonized by Europeans or other countries. Therefore, Thailand has no early or late colonial history. However, the country that was then known as the Kingdom of Siam received Western influence, which contributed to several changes to the country’s modern identity.
Tonga was never colonized, but the country was protected by the British from 1900-1970. Tonga then gave Britain special trading facilities and control over foreign affairs for free.
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